Gestalt is a psychology term which means whole In visual communication, it refers to the theories of visual perception which was developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. Gestalt psychologies described visual perception as organizing the elements or forms in an image into various groups and how we perceive parts of objects and form whole objects on the basis of these. Gestalt principles of figure-ground segregation(pragnanz), proximity, common fate, and Replica Watches closure provide a simple yet powerful analytic vocabulary for discussing page layout and graphics(Moore Fitz, 1993. p.389)
The law of similarity captures the idea that when we look at objects that are similar to each other, we tend to group them together. We are prone to notice matching shapes, colors, and forms (as opposed to looking for what isn similar). Our brains quickly identify patterns faster than the separate parts of the pattern. For example take a look at the picture below, it is actually composed of a circle shape surrounded by 14 triangular shapes. We look at it as single unit because of the similarity of the triangular shapes and we see it as forming a sunburst effect.
It is important for visual artists to take note of how quickly and effortlessly the visual gather information and that why we often see this swiss replica watches in supermarkets.
Proximity occurs when elements are placed so close together, they are perceived as a group. We love to see people and things grouped together. Groupings and togetherness appeal to our inclination of wanting things to be neat and organized. The picture below consists of many different Nike sneakers arranged so closely together to form a circular shape. When we look at it, we see a circle first and then only we see the elements that made up the whole circle.
Do you immediately see the birds flying on V-formation?
The law of proximity indicates that humans prefer to see group of similar objects together. This explains why patterned material and grid-like designs are visually appealing.
The law of pragnanz captures the idea that in perceiving a visual field, some objects take a prominent role (the figures) while others recede into the background (the ground) (Rubin, Edgar). According to Patrick Moore and Chaz Fitz, cannot perceive figures unless they are separate in some way from their backgrounds, for example, separated by their different size or contrast Thus, the visual field is usually divided into two basic parts and is often used in clever logos exemplified below. In the logo we can see the letter and also two electrical plugs. There are schemata representing our knowledge about all concepts; those underlying objects, situations, events, actions, schema contains, as part of its specifications (Rumerlhart and Brandford,1980:80)
to schema theory, people organize everything they know into schemas, or knowledge structures. People have schemas for everything in their lives including people, places, things, language, processes, and skills (Tracey, Diane H; Morrow, Lesley Mandel. 2006). So basically, schema theory tries to explain our perception through a frame that is build through our personal experience with the schema therefore, everyone schema may differ according to each individual learning or experience. For example, Wayne Rooney may have a much more elaborated schema for football than I do since he a professional and he does it for a living. Widmayer (2004) states that schema theory articulates three processes through which knowledge structures change: accretation, tuning, and restructuring. In accretation, it involves a new schema. In tuning, an existing schema is appended with new information. In restructuring, it involves a reformation of an existing schema.
Incongruent and Congruent Schemas
An incongruent schema is a schema that is considered as not ready to be accepted. Exemplified below, the hand coming out of the mouth and grabbing the the lady face aggressively connotes verbal abuse. In reality, it is impossible that a man can have a whole arm coming out from his mouth.
A congruent schema refers to something familiar that we can affiliate with and accept positively. In the picture below it connotes that a successful man with a professional career like Roger Federer wears Rolex watches. But of course, only someone who earns 3 millions per year can afford those watches.
Topic: Fire Safety and how to prevent accidents at home.
For the first schema, I have chosen a cartoon of a fire with a mean facial expression. The reason why I show them this is to give them the idea that fire is not a friendly element.
The visual of the first schema is incongruous, children aged 8-10 has the most creative and imaginative minds and that why I chosen a cartoon picture of fire. This way, I hope the message of how dangerous playing with fire can get through them and I believe they will think this picture as memorable.
For the second schema, I have chosen a picture of matchsticks stacked like a house and a lit matchstick. The idea is to show them what fire can do to houses.
This visual schema is congruous, matches light fire. The Gestalt Principles. Using Gestalt Theory To Teach Documents and Graphics. Journal retrieved September, 3rd 2010 at UBD e-library.
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